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科学美国人(翻译):青蛙像金发姑娘相同选择产科病房 2018.12.10

Frog Picks Maternity Ward Like Goldilocks

青蛙像金发姑娘相同选择产科病房

In the jungle, home is anywhere you can raise your babies—while trying not to get gobbled up by somebody else. Take a tiny creature from Brazil whose name is longer than it is: the Bahia's broad-snout casque-headed tree frog. It likes to hang out in the little ponds that form in cavities within bromeliad plants.

在丛林中,家是你能够抚育孩子的任何地方——一起你也要尽量防止被他人吃掉。以巴西的一种小型生物为例,这种生物的姓名比它的实践姓名要长:巴伊亚的宽吻木桶头树蛙。它喜爱呆在凤梨科植物的小洞里。

These petite pools are technically known as "phytotelmata," from the Greek words for plant and pond. A male finds a bromeliad and attracts a female, who lays her eggs directly into the water. The male stays behind to guard the eggs and tadpoles—spending the rest of his life within that one plant. But not just any bromeliad pool will do.

这些小水池在技术上被称为“phytotelmata”,这个词来源于希腊语中的植物和池塘。一只雄鱼发现了一只凤梨鱼,并招引了一只雌鱼,雌鱼直接把卵产在水里。雄蛙留下来维护卵和蝌蚪——在这一株植物中度过余生。但不是一切的菠萝池都能够。

“It's so crazy that there are some really nice, big bromeliads and I never found our frog there. If I would be a frog, I would like that bromeliad.”Herpetologist Mirco Solé, from Brazil's State University of Santa Cruz, quoting his graduate student, Amanda Lanter-Silva."But then we made the research, and we saw that there were tradeoffs."In all, Solé and his team surveyed 239 bromeliads within a protected part of Brazil’s Atlantic rainforest, of which 74 were occupied by frogs.

“这太张狂了,有一些十分棒的大凤梨花,而我从来没有在那里找到咱们的青蛙。”假如我是一只青蛙,我想要那只凤梨。来自巴西圣克鲁斯州立大学的爬虫学家Mirco Sole引用了他的研讨生Amanda Lanter-Silva的话。“但后来咱们做了研讨,发现其间存在权衡。”索尔和他的团队总共对巴西大西洋雨林维护区内的239个凤梨树进行了查询,其间74个凤梨树被青蛙占有。

The frogs preferred big bromeliads. But the very largest bromeliads were unoccupied by the frogs, which suggests there's a Goldilocks situation. And the researchers think it has to do with the size of the frog’s alligator-shaped heads.If the bromeliad's water tank is too large, then the frog’s head can't form a tight seal around the opening. Which would make them and their offspring an easy meal. But if the pool is too small, it might dry out completely.

青蛙更喜爱大凤梨。可是最大的凤梨树并没有被青蛙占有,这就说明晰金发姑娘的状况。研讨人员以为这与青蛙鳄鱼头的巨细有关。假如凤梨头蛙的水箱太大,青蛙的头部就不能在开口周围构成严密的密封。这将使他们和他们的子孙成为一顿简略的饭。但假如池太小,它可能会彻底干枯。

"So they are really picky concerning their houses. They need a clean house, with fresh water, and it should not be too large, nor too small."The study is in the journal PLOS ONE. [Amanda Santiago Ferreira Lantyer-Silva et al. Reproductive site selection in a bromeliad breeding treefrog suggests complex evolutionary trade-offs]

“所以他们对房子真的很挑剔。”他们需求一个洁净的房子,有淡水,它不应该太大,也不应该太小。这项研讨宣布在《公共科学图书馆·归纳》杂志上。

Solé says that these findings remind us that we need to think about the nuanced habitat needs of a species when it comes to conservation. It's not enough to breed some frogs and release them into the rainforest. We also need to ensure that they're able to find the habitats they need to live, mate and raise their young.

Sole说,这些发现提示咱们,在维护物种时,咱们需求考虑一个物种奇妙的栖息地需求。只是培养一些青蛙并将它们释放到雨林中是不行的。咱们还需求保证它们能够找到日子、交配和哺育子孙所需的栖息地。

—Jason G. Goldman

—来自Jason G. Goldman


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