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杂乱定语从句的汉译

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所谓杂乱的定语从句,是指一个句子带有两个或两个以上定语从句的结构。这类定语从句在结构上与先行词的联络比较杂乱,有如下几种方式:

  1.自由式定语从句
  自由式定语从句是指一个句子中两个或两个以上不同成分带定语从句的状况。这种从句的先行词没有固定形式,在句中充任不同的句子成分,故该结构中的定语从句称为自由式定语从句。它们拆开来看,其实就是一个一个简略的定语从句,因此,其翻译也和简略的定语从句相同。如:
  Thus the Arab Umayyed dynasty of caliphs, which had moved the capital
from Medine to Damascus in 661, came to be regarded with much justification
as a parasitic clique that had outlived its usefulness once the conquests
were completed.
  人们开端理由充分地以为,阿拉伯伍麦叶里发王朝是降服战役完成后毫无作用的一个寄生集团;伍麦叶王朝曾于661年从麦地那迁都大马士革。
  该句中由which和that 引出两个定语从句,别离润饰做主语用的the Arab Umayyed dynasty of caliphs
和作宾语用的 a parasitic clique,翻译时一个被译成并排句,一个被译成定语。

  2.嵌套式定语从句
  嵌套式定语从句是指一个句子中定语从句套定语从句的状况。这种结构中的定语从句其实和自由式定语从句根本类似,拆开来也是一个独立的定语从句,只不过一个定语从句在另一个定语从句之中罢了。因此,其翻译也与简略的定语从句相同。这儿也仅举一例加以阐明:
  Likewise in the east were the Seljuk Turks who had infiltrated from their
Central asinan homeland into the Islamic Empire where they were employed
as mercenaries by the Baghdad caliphs.
  相同,在东方是塞尔柱突厥人,他们从家园中亚进入伊斯兰教帝国;在那里被巴格达哈里发雇为雇佣军。
  该句中有两个定语从句,即在由who引出的定语从句中又套了一个由where引出的定语从句。翻译时,可按翻译简略的定语从句的办法。这儿,两者均被译成了并排句,别离润饰先行词the
Seljuk Turks 和 the Islamic Empire。

  3.并排式定语从句
  并排式定语从句是并排成分中的定语从句的简称,指一个句子中两个或两个以上并排成分均带定语从句的状况。笔者刊登在《我国翻译》(96.1)上的《明升88并排成分中定语从句的汉译》一文曾作过介绍。这儿再弥补一点,这类定语从句也可译成状语从句,即先把主句译出,再把定语从句译成两个表明并排或转机联络的状语从句。
  This was a defensive pact, designed to protect Germany against the French,
who aspired to recover the alsace-Lorraine provinces lost in 1871, and
also to protect Austria-hungary against the Russians, with whom they continually
clashed in the Balkans.
  这是一个防御性的盟约,旨在维护德国人免受法国人的进犯,维护奥匈帝国免受俄国人的进犯;由于法国人想克复1871年失掉的阿尔萨斯-洛林区域,而俄国人则在巴尔干半岛同奥匈帝国连续不断地发生冲突。

  4.一主二仆式定语从句
  一主二仆式定语从句是指一个先行词带有两个或两个以上定语从句的状况。该结构中的定语从句比较标准,均润饰一个先行词,在翻译时,尽管也遵从一般定语从句的翻译技巧和办法,但还有其共同的当地。归纳起来,有如下几种状况:
  1)译成定语 能够把两个定语从句译成并排的定语,也可译成分隔的定语润饰先地词,或别离润饰重复的先行词。
  … and the old ways of earning a living rivalled by new agricultural techniques,
by commerce with hitherto unknown parts of the globe, and by new crafts
with strane machines that saved labor and that ran without the traditional
human or animal power
  ……陈旧的谋生之道正遭到新的农业技术、新的交易、新的职业的应战;这种新交易是与国际上一贯无人知晓的区域进行的交易,而种种新职业则是运用一些无需传统的人力畜力驱动、可节约劳作力的独特时机。(并排的定语)
  Almost everything which really matters and which the world possessed
at the commencement of the modern age was already known to man at the dawn
of history.
  近代史开端时,国际具有的每一项严重成就,已为前史发端期的人们所知晓。(分隔的定语)
  And it helps to explain why so many inventions that were of Chinese origin
or that had been known to the Greco-Romans, were fully developed and exploited
ony by the Western Europeans.
  它有助于阐明,为什么发源于我国的许多创造和希腊罗马人所知道的许多创造,只是在西欧人手中才得到全面开展和充分利用。(分隔的定语润饰重复的先行词)
  2)译成并排句 能够把两个定语从句简略地译成一个并排句,也能够把它们译成两个分隔的并排句,用来表明并排、转机或先后顺序等联络:
  Consequently the manor was a self-sufficient vilage that was worked by
serfs who were not free to leave, and who with their labor supported a
hierarchy of lay and clerical lords.
  因此,采邑是靠农奴运营的自足自给予的村庄;农奴不能随意脱离,并以其劳作养活教俗封建集团。(一个并排句)
  Not Surprisingly, the most complex political structures appeared in the
Sudan, where long distance trade was most highly developed and where Islamic
influence was the strongest.
  毫不古怪,苏丹呈现了最杂乱的政治安排,在那里,远程交易开展得最快,伊斯兰教的影响最为激烈。(两个并排句)
  Our aim is to establish in Ghana a strong and progressive society … where
poverty and illiteracy no longer exist and disease is brought under control;
and where our educational facilities provide all the children of Ghana
with the best possible opportunities for the development of their potentialities.
  咱们的意图是在加纳树立一个强壮、前进的社会……在这儿,贫穷和文盲不再存在,疾病得到操控;在这儿,咱们的教育组织为加纳一切的孩子供给开展他们的潜力的最好时机。(两个并排句,表明并排联络)
  This hope was nurtured by the great victories won by Genghis Khan's grandson,
Hulagu, who was a Buddhist, and whose wife was a Christian.
  成吉思汗的孙子旭烈兀所获得的伟大胜利,助长了这一期望。旭烈兀是个佛教徒,而他的妻子是基督教徒。(两个并排句,表明转机联络)
  3)其他译法 这类定语从句除上述两种正规、固定的翻译办法外,还有其他几种比较灵敏的译法。咱们能够把翻译简略定语从句的办法融会贯通,运用其间,如译成定语+句子成分,即把一个从句译成定语,另一个从句译成句子成分;或译成并排句(或句子成分)+状语从句,即把一个从句译成并排句或句子成分,另一个从句译成状语从句等。

  Even so the lisbon government admitted in MARCH< !(&)< THAt a major attack
had been launched by guerrillas who were armed with mortars and automatic
weapons and who inflilcted "many" Portuguese casualties.
  即使如此,里斯本政府仍于1970年3月供认,装备迫击炮和自动武器的游击队已发动了一次大规模的进攻,使葡萄牙人遭受"严重"伤亡。(定语+句子成分)
  At one extreme are Hawii and Brazil, where racial intermixture is extensive
and continuing, and where racial discrimination is relatively minor.
  处于一个极点的是夏威夷和巴西,在那里,种族混合非常广泛,并且正在继续进行,因此,种族歧视较少。(并排句+状语从句)
  He was also an old-line Stalinist who had spent 16 years in Hungarian
jails in the interwar period and who was now unwilling to share authority
with the "nationalist" Hungarian Communists.
  他仍是一位老牌的斯大林主义者,曾在两次国际大战之间的时期内涵匈牙利监狱呆了16年,因此这时不肯与"民族主义的"匈牙利共产党人共享权利。(句子成分+状语从句)

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